This newsletter is being supported
TEXAS PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION
Anyone wanting this newsletter by e-mail please send me a note
put you on the list. If any one has had an address change from
a rural route box number to a 911 address please let me know
so I can make the change. I have had to drop several producers
because of returned letters with incorrect/old addresses.
Rain, rain and more rain. Although not everyone in Texas
has received excessive rain, many areas have. Here in Brazos
county we have already reached our average annual amount.
Excess rain and water logged soils are creating scab problems
and overgrown orchard floors. In this newsletter I’ve
also added a section on weed control which can be found in
the Texas Pecan Handbook.
Pecan Scab: With all of the rain I’m including the
section on pecan scab again. Pecan scab is still a major
threat to pecans in many areas of Texas. Orchard floors are
soaked and it will be awhile before equipment can get in
the orchard.. Where scab pressure is high and orchards floors
are wet, aerial application, although not as good as ground
application is still a good option.
Fungicides labeled for pecan scab in Texas:
Flint (trifloxystrobin )
Super Tin (triphenyltin hydroxide)
Syllit 65W (dodine)
*** Grazing restrictions also apply to fungicides.
Aphids: Blackmargined aphids populations have been building
during the last part of June. These honey dew aphids attract
a lot of beneficials such as lacewings, lady beetles and
spiders. It is generally felt that it is best to leave
these insects alone and let the beneficials help control
Spittle bug: White spittle masses produced by immature
spittle bugs and becoming obvious in many orchards.
Although I have said insecticides are not usually needed
for this insect, there are no real clear guide lines. Immatures
which feed in the spittle masses can cause nutlets to shed.
If a producer has a very light crop along with a high percent
?)of clusters infested, then an application might be justified.
However, if spittle masses are large, then the damage is
already done, plus with large spittle masses there could
be poor control. If an application is needed look at spot
treating infested areas and using a selective insecticide.
If spittle masses have dried this means the immatures have
quit feeding. (Photo: Spittle bug spittle mass
Black pecan aphid: Watch for black pecan aphids in the interior
portion of the canopy. BPA infestations can be found by looking
for the characteristic yellow angular blotches. This aphid
is generally appears later this month or in August.
Walnut caterpillar: I’ve received a few reports of
walnut caterpillar activity. Watch for colonies ofthese caterpillars
feeding on terminal foliage and masses of larvae molting
on the trunk of mailscaffold limbs. This insect is easily controlled
with several different insecticides. In urban areas or inareas
where drift could cause problems I recommend insecticides
containing Bacillus thuringiensis.
Spiders are important predators in pecans and probably don’t
receive the credit they deserve. You can find additional information
on spiders inpecans at the following web site:
Mechanical Tillage: Disk
Advantage: Destroys all weeds and grasses.
Disadvantages: Requires a relatively high horsepower tractor; opens erodible
sites to soil loss; can’t be used efficiently
with surface low-volume irrigation systems; causes maximum
Advantages: Destroys all weeds and grasses; in-and-out
types can work very close to trees.
Disadvantages: Requires high
tractor; opens erodible sites to soil loss; can’t be used efficiently with
surface low-volume irrigation systems; high speed vertical rotation tillers damage
soil structure and cause maximum soil compaction.
Mower - Rotary, sickle, flail
Advantages: Allows control of weed and grass growth while still maintaining
sod cover on the orchard floor; sod cover allows maximum orchard access under
Chemical Applicators - Hand pump sprayers
Advantages: Can be used to spray close to small trees
Disadvantages: Inefficient and unwieldy because the applicator must repeatedly
stop to pump the sprayer; Must have coarse spray tips that are chemically inefficient;
can’t be calibrated. Should not be used with preemergence herbicides.
Back Pack Sprayers
Advantages: Can be used to spray chemicals close to small trees; can
be calibrated to apply both preemerge and contact chemicals; enables applicator
to spray continuously without stopping to pump up pressure.
tiring since applicator must carry the dilute spray mix.
Controlled Droplet Applicator
Advantages: Utilizes a concentrated chemical solution and enables the
operator to cover a relatively large area on foot without carrying much weight.;
weeds are killed with maximum chemical efficiency, especially when applying
Disadvantages: Spray pattern is barely visible and easily moved
by wind and extra caution must be used when applying chemicals near small trees
with low foliage
Controlled Droplet Applicator - Tractor
Advantages: Weeds are killed with maximum chemical efficiency; they
utilize an concentrated chemical solution and cover a relatively large are
with a minimum of spray solution; they need only low-output, low pressure equipment,
units can be rigged to lawn tractors, 4-wheelers or other small carriers.
Disadvantages: The spray pattern is barely visible and moved by the wind;
units are not well suited for wettable powders or for application of most preemerge
herbicides; this low volume low pressure small droplet technology may not provide
adequate coverage of taller weeds and grasses.
Boom Sprayer - Tractor mounted
Advantages: These types of rigs are the most versatile with any type
of herbicide can be applied accurately and effectively; relatively low output,
low pressure equipment is needed.
Disadvantages: These units are primarily used as dilute spray applicators
and require more water per acre; even at low pressure, smaller spray tips may
have considerable droplet atomization, atomized droplets drift readily and
present a hazard in close work around vulnerable crops with low vegetation.
TEXAS PECAN GROWERS CONFERENCE
I hope all of you will be able to make it to the annual TPGA Conference and
Trade Show in San Antonio this year. Call the TPGA office 979-846-3285 or
visit their web site at www.TPGA.org for more information. I will have an
exhibit booth again this year and hope you will come by to visit.
Also this is a reminder that CEU credits will be given during the conference
and you will have to sign up each day. Announcements concerning sign up location
and CEU credits will be made each morning.
July is the month to take leaf samples. Leaf sample analysis along with soil
samples will provide you with a good picture of your fertility program. I’ll
provide more information on this topic in the next newsletter.
Also in the next newsletter will be information on herbicides.
July 11-14, 2004
83rd Annual Texas Pecan Growers Conference and Trade Show
San Antonio, TX
Contact: TPGA - 979-846-3285