This newsletter is being supported
TEXAS PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION
Anyone wanting this newsletter by e-mail please send me a note
put you on the list. If any one has had an address change from
a rural route box number to a 911 address please let me know
so I can make the change. I have had to drop several producers
because of returned letters with incorrect/old addresses.
This will be the last scheduled newsletter
of 2004. I'll start again next March.
Harvest has started in south Texas on the Pawnees with yields
being a little light. There have been scattered showers
across the central portion of the state but nothing that
will interfere with harvest. Third generation PNC has been
heavy in some orchards and could impact quality.
Black Pecan Aphid: Leaflets damaged by black pecan aphids
will have rectangular necrotic (brown or yellow) areas
between the leaf veins. Damaged leaves will continue to
drop up to first frost.
Hickory shuckworm: Damage from hickory shuckworm will become
apparent at harvest. HSW larvae will be a creamy dirty white
color while PNC larvae are dark. It is too late to do anything
now for this years crop. If infestations are heavy - make
plans for next year!
Pecan nut casebearer: Third generation PNC has been heavy
in many orchards during August and September. During this
time of year you can separate PNC activity from hickory shuckworm
by the frass that is pushed outside the nut at the base of
the cluster by PNC larvae (see picture). The black granular
frass is from PNC. Hickory shuckworm larvae do not push the
frass outside the nut. Third generation PNC is hard to scout
for the pecans are large and eggs can be laid any where on
the nut. Often times they (eggs) are at the base of clusters
where the pecans are touching.
Pecan weevil: For those producers with adult
emergence traps, continue to monitor traps up to harvest.
If the soil in the orchard becomes hard due to drought there
could be a delayed adult emergence and pecan weevil can feed
on pecan up to shuck split. A pecan weevil management program
will require at least two applications.. I feel that producers
should take notes on their pecan weevil management program,
notes on percent damage, yields, location of infestations.,
insecticides used, irrigation or rain fall dates - and amounts
will help one evaluate his/her program.
One number to remember is that it is approximately 42 days
from egg lay to grub emergence. If grubs are observed emerging
from pecans look back 6 weeks to see what happened at that
time which allowed females to lay eggs in nuts.
Stink bugs/Leaffooted bugs: During the late summer and early
fall is the time of year when adult stink bugs, primarily
the southern green, green, brown and dusky stink bugs and
leaffooted bugs can move into orchards from other host plants.
Unfortunately there are no defined treatment thresholds for
this group and most effective insecticides can not be applied
within 21 to 28 days of harvest or after shuck split. With
the difficulty in scouting and the possibility of late season
damage (can feed on pecans during harvest) this presents
a challenge to both producers and researchers alike.
If anyone has tried using a trap crop to manage stink bugs
I would like to hear about the results - good or bad.
I am also trying to gather information on the impact of
stink bugs/leaffooted bugs on the crop and what they are
costing producers. Please complete the short survey at http://pecankernel.tamu.edu/surveys/stinkbugsurvey.htm,
or you could fill out or answer the following.
2. County(ies) where orchard(s) are located
3. Type of production
a. commercial # acres improved
b. native # acres
4. Varieties with damage
5. Do you recognize stink bugs? Yes No
(online survey has color pictures)
6. How do you sell your pecans? Check all that apply.
a. wholesale only
b. wholesale and retail
c. retail inshell only
d. retail cracked
7. Do you grade your pecans prior to sale?
if yes - estimated dollar loss
or estimated percent kernel damage
8. Did you apply an insecticide for stink bugs?
If yes how many acres? ___________
Cost of treatment $_____________
month of treatment. _____________
9. Other comments ________________________
Your name is not required and all individual information
will be confidential.
Walnut caterpillar: I received one report from an east Texas
forester this week that he had observed a lot of walnut caterpillar
activity in east Texas recently. Now this may be old news
to some of you but I don’t see much of east Texas so
I’m passing the information along.
In Texas there can be either two or three generations per
year depending on the number of frost free days with the
three generations occurring in the southern and eastern portions
of the state.
Walnut caterpillar larvae feed in colonies and do not construct
any type of webbing. Female moths deposit egg masses which
can contain over 600 eggs on the underside of leaflets and
larvae will go through 5 instars with most of the damage
occurring during the 5th or last instar.
Young larvae feed only on soft tissue, leaving a skeletonized
leaf while older larvae feed on the entire leaf. When it
is time to molt the colony will move as a group to the main
trunk or a scaffold limb and leave behind a clump of cast
Natural control is achieved through various egg and larval
parasites and numerous predators. However, if an insecticide
is needed, there are numerous products which can be used.
If livestock are grazing in the area to be treated then grazing
restrictions will have to be observed.
Colony of walnut caterpillars
September 22, 2004
Contact: Travis Franke 830-379-1972
September 23, 2004
Contact: William Johnson 281-534-3413
October 5, 2004
Contact: Dirk Arron 254-933-5305
November 16, 2004
Fort Bend county
Contact: Sarah Lineberger CEA-Hort
September 25-26, 2004
18th Annual Mississippi Pecan Festival