Anyone wanting this newsletter by email please send me a note at the above address and I'll put you the list. If any one has had an address change from a rural route box number to a 911 address please let me know so I can make the change. I have had to drop several producers because of returned letters with incorrect/old addresses.
This is the first newsletter of 2006 and will be written periodically from now until harvest. If you have any comments or suggestions concerning this newsletter please contact me at the above address.
As a reminder, if you haven't calibrated or checked the calibration of your sprayer recently you should do so sometime this spring.
All horticultural oils that are used on pecan are used during the dormant season with the main target pest being obscure scale. The following is some general information on horticultural oils.
Dormant Oil: This class of oil is the heaviest of the horticultural oils and is formulated for use on dormant plants only. Apply these oils as late in the dormant season as possible but before budbreak . Dormant oil effectiveness increases as temperatures increase and insect metabolism is accelerated.
Summer Oils: Summer oils are slightly lighter than dormant oils and are formulated for use during the spring and summer on some plants .
Superior Oils: This class of oil is the most highly refined of all the horticultural oils. These oils are used primarily during the growing season, However, they may be used as a dormant oil by changing the rates.
Unsulfonated Residue (UR): this number is a measure of purity or degree of refinement and is always listed as a percent with 92 being the minimum. The higher the percent, the higher the purity.
Viscosity: This is a property used to define oil heaviness and is expressed in seconds. Horticultural oils fall into the 60 to 200 second range, with the heavier oils rating 100 or higher. The higher the number the more persistent the oil on the plant. Dormant or semi-dormant plants will tolerate heavier deposits than trees in leaf.
Distillation: distillation temperature range is a measure of the volatility of an oil. Horticultural oils have a distillation range of 400 to 488 F. The lower the distillation temperature the quicker the evaporation. Dormant oils will have a distillation range of around 438 F while superior oils will be around 412 F.
Gravity: This is another method of weighing oil. When related to viscosity and the UR it can provide an index to oil paraffinicity. Oils should be largely paraffinic to be safe for plants. Gravity is measured in degrees and the higher the number the more paraffinic the oil. Thirty degrees is the minimum standard.
In Texas, dormant oils are permitted in the Texas Department of Agricultures certified organic production (Organic Food Standards and Certification, Texas Administrative Code, Title 4, Part1 Chapter 18).
Before purchasing and applying any type of horticultural oil ALWAYS READ THE LABEL. When applying, make sure there is good agitation in the tank . Even though you are making an application to a dormant tree, injury or tree death can occur if there is poor agitation which allows the oil and water to separate and trees receive high concentrations of oil.
For those producers that have to deal with phylloxera infestations, this is a reminder that treatment time for this insect is after budbreak when trees show 1 - 2 inches of new growth. This insect has overwintered as an egg inside the body of a dead female in the rough bark and the crawlers will be emerging around budbreak to move to the new growth.
Labeled insecticides for phylloxera include: chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) @ 2.0 pints per acre; imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F) @ 4.0 ounces per acre; esfenvalerate (Asana XL) @ 4.8 ounces per acre; lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) @ 3.0 ounces per acre; thiamethoxam (Centric 40WG) @ 2.0 ounces per acre; Mustang Max @ 3.0 ounces per acre and malathion (Malathion 57EC) @ 1.2 pts per acre.
Pecan nut casebearer
If you haven't placed your order for your pheromone traps you need to do so or at least start thinking about it. I'm sure my list is not complete but the following are some suppliers of PNC traps and pheromone. For any supplier that I have not listed please send me your information and I will add you to the list.
The pecan nut casebearer pheromone trap is one of the best tools a producer can use in their pest management program. These traps will indicate the start of PNC activity which tells us when egg lay starts and when nut entry starts. We recommend 3 traps for 50 acres or less and at least 5 traps for more than 50 acres. I feel that producers should purchase at least twice the number of traps they will need for a monitoring period. If a storm should damage traps during a critical monitoring time you will have the extra traps on hand and won't waste valuable time by having to wait for another order. All lures not being used should be stored in the FREEZER.
Traps should be scattered through the orchard but placed in locations that are easily accessible. Traps should be place at eye level on the end of branches and checked at least 3 times a week.
Past research has shown that egg lay will start 7 to 10 days after initial catch with nut entry starting 12 to 16 days after that initial catch. You can not make treatment decisions based on trap catches but you will know when to be in the orchard to monitor egg lay.
Suppliers of Pecan Nut Casebearer Pheromone and Traps
Oliver Pecan Co. Inc.
1402 W. Wallace, San Saba, TX 76877800-657-9291
Southern Nut “n” Tree Equipment, Inc and Pecan Producers, Inc.
324 SH 16 South, Goldthwaite, TX 76844
Pape Pecan House
P.O. Box 1281, Seguin, TX 78155
Great Lakes IPM Inc.
P.O. Box 129, Adair, OK 74330
Order Center: 866-785-1313
Advanced Pheromone Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 417, Marylhurst, OR 97036-0417
This is the time of year when many Texas counties have their annual spring pecan field days. Information presented at these field days will vary between counties but generally includes information on grafting, horticultural practices and the latest on insect and disease control. The following are the field days I have information on at this time. I encourage you to support your local county pecan field day buy attending.
March 24 , 2006
Regional Pecan Shortcourse
Contact: Melissa Clifton 325-672-6048
March 28, 2006
Central TX Pecan Shortcourse
Contact: Tom Guthrie @ 325-648-2650
March 31, 2006
Caldwell/Bastrop county field day
Contact Rachel Bauer @ 512-398-3122
or Maron Finley @ 512-581-7186
April 7, 2006
Milam county field day
Contact: Jon Gersbach @ 254-697-7045
April 8, 2006
Brazoria county field day
Contact: Paula Craig @ 979-864-1558
April 11, 2006
Waller county field day
Contact Cody Denison @ 979-826-7651
April 15, 2006 Austin county field day
Contact: Philip Schackelford @ 979-865-5911
April 21, 2006 San Jacinto field day
Contact: Aaron Sumrall @ 936-628-6407
April 27, 2006 Guadalupe county field day
Contact: Travis Franke @ 830-379-1972
May 4, 2006
Williamson county field day
Contact: Dale Mott @ 512-943-3300
May 13, 2006
Washington county field day
Contact: Larry Pierce @ 979-277-6212
May 15, 2006
Comanche county field day
Contact: Bob Whitney @ 325-356-2539
March 5-7, 2006
Western Pecan Growers Conference
Hilton Inn, Las Cruces, NM
Contact: Olivia Carver @ 505-646-7911 or Peggy Salopek @ 505-646-5280
March 10-11, 2006
Southeastern Pecan Growers Conference
Baypoint Marriott, Panama City Beach, FL
Contact: Beverly Wilson @ 229-436-5654
May 4, 2006
Georgia Pecan Growers Association
Contact: Jane Crocker @ 229-382-2187
June 7-9, 2006
Louisiana Pecan Growers
Clarion Hotel, Shreveport, LA
Contact Susan Wilson @ 318-932-8912
June 18-20, 2006
Oklahoma Pecan Growers Conference
Contact: Janice Landgraf @ 580-795-7644
July 9 -12
Texas Pecan Growers Conference and Trade Show Embassy Suites, Frisco, TX
Contact: TPGA @ 979-846-3285